What Does CBD Do

By Yes.Life | 30 August 2019 | 10 min read

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What is CBD

CBD has soared in popularity, but many consumers are still left in the dark about it. While the word on CBD is slowly spreading, plenty of misinformation has accompanied it. In this article, we will go over some of the major benefits that CBD has been scientifically established to have. We will follow it with a quick section focusing on some common maladies that CBD can or can’t help treat, and end with a section on the most common CBD questions we see asked!

Before jumping into all of that, it is important to understand what CBD actually is. CBD – or cannabidiol – is a class of chemical called a cannabinoid. A cannabinoid is generally considered any chemical which interacts with the Endocannabinoid System, a system of enzymes, pathways, and cell receptors in the human body. CBD is just one of the many cannabinoids identified in the hemp plant. Unlike most cannabinoids, CBD doesn’t tend to directly interact with your body’s cannabinoid receptors. Instead, it helps boost the presence of your own natural cannabinoid, Anandamide.1,2

Most Hemp CBD Oils contain the full hemp-plant extract of cannabinoids, although some (called Broad Spectrum) specifically filter out THC. THC is the part of the plant that is responsible for failed drug tests and – in marijuana (not hemp) psycho-activity (the “high”). There is some early research to suggest that CBD is best when used in the presence of the other hemp cannabinoids.3 We will occasionally bring up effects that some of these other cannabinoids can perform in addition to what CBD is known to do on its own.

Primary Effects of CBD

Anxiety & Depression:

One of the biggest reasons people take CBD is to help treat anxiety and depression. But CBD does not provide these effects directly: rather, it boosts your body’s own natural systems for dealing with these things. That is the Endocannabinoid System.

CBD does not tend to interact much with the CB1 and CB2 receptors of the Endocannabinoid System. However, it can boost the use of CB1 by allowing the body’s natural CB1 patron – anandamide (also called AEA or n-arachidonoylethanolamine) – to reach the CB1 receptors unabated. Ordinarily, enzymes such as FAAH (Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase) prevent our natural levels of anandamide from reaching the CB1 receptors in the brain in appreciable amounts. CBD suppresses the action of FAAH, causing a rise in anandamide levels, and thus allowing the chemical to reach its target in the brain.2

What does anandamide do once it interacts with the CB1 receptors in the brain? It causes the suppression of two neurotransmitter molecules – basically, two of the chemical messengers that brain cells use to communicate with one another. These neurotransmitters are GABA (Gamma Amino-Butyric Acid, but just pronounce “GABA” like a word) and glutamate. GABA is an inhibitory molecule or depressant: it suppresses general nervous system activity. Glutamate, by contrast, is an excitatory molecule, causing an increase in nervous system activity. Activation of the CB1 receptor causes both kinds of molecule – depressant and stimulant – to lower in level.4 This can essentially put the brain back into balance.

An imbalance of these chemicals appears to lead to emotional problems, such as depression.5 Simultaneously, the work of the CB1 receptor has now been pinpointed to the loss of anxiety via the “runner’s high,” since anandamide is made in excess during times of running or meditation.6,7 In fact, the idea that β-endorphin was causing the runner’s high has now been dismissed in favor of anandamide, as the former can’t breach the blood-brain barrier.7

CBD’s positive effects on the brain don’t end with simply anxiety and depression. Studies have shown that – at least in the first month – taking CBD increased sleep.8 Evidence suggesting CBD is an anticonvulsant has been found, likely stemming from its ability to modulate the neurotransmitters mentioned above.9 CBD can also act as a neuroprotectant for brain cells, helping to prevent diseases like MS, Parkinson’s, and more from developing.10,11,12

Pain & Inflammation:

Another major reason people take CBD is to help with pain and general inflammation. CBD helps dull pain by targeting the source of it – cells in the body sending off the pain signal to the brain. The particular mechanism CBD uses to ease the pain is via TRP Channels, or “Transient Receptor Potential” Channels.13

Cells have a variety of gateways and channels linking their insides and the outside space. Some of these channels, like the TRP channels, only open when a specific molecule, called a “ligand,” binds onto the channel receptors somewhere on the outside of the cell. For TRP channels, in particular, the opening allows ions – atoms carrying an overall electric charge – to flood into and out of them, changing the electric potential in the cell, and ultimately causing signals to propagate through the nervous system. TRP channels are responsible for a number of sensations, including pain.14 So how does CBD nullify that pain?

CBD will bind onto the TRP receptor and “desensitize” it, meaning it will no longer open and close according to whatever was causing pain before.13 There is a vast number of TRP types, and CBD interacts specifically with only a few of them.14 As a result, CBD can help diminish and ease pain, but not in such a way as to be damaging – after all, pain tells you when something is not right, and a complete loss of it would make you highly vulnerable. CBD taken orally will help address the pain from the inside-out, meaning deeper pains are more likely to be eased, while topical CBD will work from the outside-in, meaning it better gets at more superficial pains.

CBD could be especially useful in illnesses such as Fibromyalgia, where the current theory suggests that the nerves are fine, and it is the brain which is magnifying ordinary pain signals. By targeting the source of the pain, the brain receives little to no signal, meaning there is no pain for it to magnify.

As for inflammation, CBD can deactivate the part of the immune system that targets invaders. These immune cells are called T-cells.15 CBD is an immunosuppressant, meaning it pushes down signals of the immune system.16 This may sound bad at first until you consider how many illnesses are actually started by our immune systems. Diseases like Multiple Sclerosis involves T-cells entering parts of the spine where they ordinarily shouldn’t be: CBD may help prevent illness like MS by deactivating such renegade T-cells.12,15 Furthermore, several cannabinoids have been identified that can suppress cytokines, the chemical messengers of the immune system.12,17 Cytokines are the instigators of inflammation, and thus suppression of them can help the body fight off unneeded inflammation (such as in arthritis). This may all sound dangerous, but CBD is still considered quite safe to take.10 It may be enough to help with illness and inflammation, but not too much to compromise the body!

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Antioxidant Effect:

Not only does CBD dull pain, fight inflammation, and produce calming effects, but it can also promote better general health! It does this through its antioxidant effects, of which there are quite a few.

An antioxidant is a chemical which helps fight oxidation in the body. Oxidation is – as the name might suggest – a natural part of us using oxygen to live. However, there is such a thing as too much oxidation: oxygen is, chemically speaking, a highly reactive chemical, and if it gets “loose” in the cell, it can cause major damage. Hence the need for antioxidants to fight to the pollution that radical oxygens can cause. Such radical oxygens are known as ROS for “Reactive Oxygen Species.”

CBD not only provides antioxidant effects, but also boosts the body’s own natural antioxidant systems, which in turn promotes the body’s ability to perform homeostasis.11,18,19 Homeostasis is the body’s ability to keep internal conditions optimal for you. This includes pH, temperature, salinity, and more. When you are too cold, the body shivers to help keep the internal temperature warm enough; when you are too hot, the body sweats to cool itself off. This is homeostasis, and greater homeostasis corresponds to greater longevity.19

So, what are the specific ways CBD provides antioxidant power? First, it can directly regulate the genes responsible for Zinc homeostasis.11 Zinc is an important antioxidant when in the right amounts, but too much or too little and it becomes an oxidant.20 Thus, CBD inadvertently creates an antioxidant effect.

CBD can also recognize cells in the body that are producing too many oxidants and cause them to die.21 This is considered part of CBD’s neuroprotective effect (it keeps the brain from getting too polluted by broken cells). CBD is also involved in modulating PPARγ, a transcription factor responsible for regulation of energy and metabolism.18 A transcription factor is a chemical that can promote or suppress certain parts of the DNA sequence, making sure only the DNA currently needed gets used. Because the process of generating energy in the cell is oxidation, regulating it can help keep a tight leash on the production of cellular pollutants, acting as an overall antioxidant.

CBD and Specific Ailments

CBD’s many effects are very much a part of its growing popularity, but how exactly can CBD help you? In this section, we will go over very briefly some of CBD’s applications for health, beauty, medicine, and mental illness.

CBD and Specific Ailments: Health

CBD offers some great benefits to general health in the way of its antioxidant effects, but is that all it can do? Here, we will talk about CBD’s effect on weight loss, smoking addiction, and general pain relief for aiding in exercise.

While CBD has been called an “appetite suppressant” by some, its overall effect on weight loss may not be so good. CBD is considered an appetite suppressant due to its antagonistic effect on the CB1 receptor. When activated, this receptor has shown to facilitate weight gain. Unfortunately, CBD does indirectly activate this receptor via its boosting of anandamide levels, which has been directly implicated in greater weight gain for a given diet.22 Only at high doses of CBD was an increased appetite lessened.10 Even so, this does not bode well for CBD as a means of weight loss.

Some people have claimed that CBD might be able to help with tobacco addiction, and while this statement is still very strong, there is some preliminary evidence. CBD has shown some minor potential in overall drug addiction, with the ability to help modulate the reward threshold certain drugs provide, and possible therapeutic potential in relapse phases of drug use.23 When it comes to tobacco, however, CBD seems to do a bit more. One study showed a 40% reduction in smoking during a one week trial compared to a placebo group. After the study was done, both groups resumed smoking like normal, but CBD could – at the very least – lower tobacco consumption, and thus help individuals quit smoking overall.18,23

As for pain, it has already been discussed how CBD mediates some of its pain relief properties. For those looking at pain induced by sports or working out, a suggestion of using both internal CBD (orally taken tinctures) and topical CBD (applied to the skin) would be best. Orally taken CBD tends to remain in the body for at least a day24, so don’t worry about taking extra during your workout.

CBD and Specific Ailments: Beauty

When it comes to “beauty,” most people are concerned with how CBD might affect their skin. As discussed earlier in this article, CBD can affect an array of special cellular channels called TRPs. TRP channels are found extensively throughout the skin, and the skin is known to also possess its own cutaneous endocannabinoid system. CBD’s actions on these skin receptors have shown to promote skin homeostasis, meaning it helps promote the growth and general health of skin.14

When it comes to acne, CBD has shown extensive potential for treatment. Able to normalize the production of fats in skin cells, lower the numbers of pro-acne cells, and prevent the accumulation of inflammation-signaling cytokines, CBD shows incredible promise for the treatment of acne.25 CBD may even be able to treat later stages of acne, involving highly proliferative keratinocytes, and its antibacterial properties may help fight off the bacterial component of acne.25 All in all, CBD – applied topically and ingested via oral tinctures – could help keep your skin looking its best!

CBD and Specific Ailments: Medicine

Many people are seeking to use CBD as an alternative form of medication. While you should always speak with your doctor before making such a decision, some of the research on CBD is quite promising. Here, we will very quickly go over CBD and its possible benefits for various medical maladies. We will direct you to the chart below for concerns about your specific illness.

CBD has shown an ability to improve sleep, possibly aiding insomnia8, deliver general pain relief (this can apply to some kinds of headaches!), help inflammation (and thus possibly arthritis)13, and act as an aid against autoimmune disorders.12 It has demonstrated neuroprotective effects (giving the brain general support before illness can begin there)10, and even shows anticancer properties.26 It has shown the ability to help children on the Autism Spectrum.27 CBD has also shown to lower blood pressure, which might be useful for those suffering from high blood pressure but is otherwise a factor to consider when taking it for other symptoms.28

Some reports suggest CBD could help with symptoms related to diabetes, although CB1 receptors have been implicated in many issues of diabetes, and although CBD is an antagonist of this receptor, it will still increase anandamide levels, which will then activate CB1.2 Thus, CBD may be a mixed bag for treatment of diabetes.29 CBD is also a mixed bag when it comes to treating the alcoholic “hangover,” with signs that it might help ease some symptoms, as well as evidence suggesting it could make other symptoms much worse.4,30,31

CBD and Specific Ailments: Mental Illness

One of CBD’s primary effects is to help reduce anxiety – or, “stress.”33 It furthermore has been implicated in the ability to help with depression, sleep, PTSD, and – as discussed above – has some potential in helping with the addiction of various kinds.5,8,23,32 No specific research on CBD’s effect of actual phobias could be found, although its use in anxiety and the cognitive elements of PTSD suggest it could help at least alleviate some part of the fear element that comes with phobias. Furthermore, CBD use for ADD and ADHD shows some very minor promise, although it is far from conclusive. CBD has, however, shown some potential in treating OCD.34 In fact, CBD’s general ability to suppress anxiety disorders suggest that it could even help with racing thoughts, although there is no direct research on this.

CBD and Specific Ailments: Chart





Products to Use


Weight Loss

[10] [22]

More likely to cause weight gain than weight loss.


Quit Smoking


Possible aid in reducing the smoking amount, help with quitting.

CBD Oil Tinctures (Oral)

Pain Relief

[13] [14]

Great pain relief potential.

CBD Oil Tinctures (Oral) together with topical CBD Oil Gels/Creams.




Improve and modulate skin homeostasis.

CBD Oil Tinctures (Oral) plus topical CBD Oil Gels/Creams for particular spots.


[14] [25]

Prevent, combat, and potentially remove acne

CBD Oil Tinctures (Oral) plus topical CBD Oil Gels/Creams for particular spots.



Part of skin homeostasis.

CBD Oil Tinctures (Oral) plus topical CBD Oil Gels/Creams for particular spots.



[13] [11] [14]

Improve inflammation through the body.

CBD Oil Tinctures (Oral) plus topical CBD Oil Gels/Creams for particular spots.



Improve sleeping for at least first month of use.

CBD Oil Tinctures (Oral)


[12] [13]

Improve pain and possibly lower inflammation.

CBD Oil Tinctures (Oral) plus topical CBD Oil Gels/Creams for particular spots.


[4] [30] [31]

Very mixed data. Could make symptoms worse via dehydration and gastrointestinal effects, could make better via nervous system effects.

CBD Oil Tinctures (Oral), no best time established when to use, could make symptoms worse.



Very mixed data. Could improve via antagonism to CB1, could make worse via increase in anandamide levels.

CBD Oil Tinctures (Oral)

Chronic Pain

[13] [14]

May help. Ought to be taken consistently.

CBD Oil Tinctures (Oral)


[13] [14]

May help. Many kinds of headaches, so results likely to vary.

CBD Oil Tinctures (Oral) for general support plus CBD Oil Gels/Creams for immediate application at onset.



Very positive anti-cancer effects. Different cannabinoids tend to affect different kinds of cancer cells.

CBD Oil Tinctures (Oral), possibly best used as Full Spectrum to include THC’s effect in fighting particular cancers.



Some data to suggest general improvement in symptoms like anxiety, depression, anger, etc.

CBD Oil Tincture (Oral)



Neuroprotective effect to help stop onset of neurodegenerative disease. Modulates GABA and glutamate neurotransmitters for brain balance.

CBD Oil Tincture (Oral)

High Blood Pressure


Can lower blood pressure.

CBD Oil Tincture (Oral)


[13] [14] [35]

Potentially very viable treatment for addressing pain at source. Strong anecdotal evidence.

CBD Oil Tinctures (Oral) plus topical CBD Oil Gels/Creams for particular spots.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome


No data published thus far


Multiple Sclerosis


Can help prevent. May improve symptoms. Some reviews are ambiguous about specific use of CBD.

CBD Oil Tinctures (Oral)



Very limited data with conflicting results. More research is simply needed.




Potential for treatment. May improve inflammation.

CBD Oil Tinctures (Oral)

Lyme Disease


No data published thus far


Hashimoto's Disease


No data published thus far


Inflammatory Bowel Disease


Lack of real conclusive evidence, despite anecdotal reports of symptom improvement.

CBD Oil Tinctures (Oral)

Grave's Disease


No data published thus far


Rheumatoid Arthritis

[12] [13]

Potential for treatment. May improve inflammation.

CBD Oil Tinctures (Oral) plus topical CBD Oil Gels/Creams for particular spots.

Celiac Disease


Data shows increase in CB1 and CB2 receptors in gut. May actually be worsened by CBD, no conclusive data.






CBD known to help anxiety, should help stress.

CBD Oil Tinctures (Oral)



Possible treatment potential, although very hit or miss based on drug and particular effect on addiction. Effect most prevalent on relapse time.

CBD Oil Tinctures (Oral)



Little to no evidence to suggest any help at all.

CBD Oil Tinctures (Oral)



Improvement in sleep for at least first month of use; fluctuating results after

CBD Oil Tinctures (Oral)


[10] [33]

Very much evidence to show CBD helps anxiety

CBD Oil Tinctures (Oral)


[5] [33]

Some evidence suggests CBD helps depression.

CBD Oil Tinctures (Oral)



Research shows improvement.

CBD Oil Tinctures (Oral)


[32] [34]

Strong therapeutic possibility for symptoms and memory reconsolidation.

CBD Oil Tinctures (Oral)



Some minor potential for treatment, not conclusive.

CBD Oil Tinctures (Oral)


[32] [34]

No specific research done on this, although research shows ability to help in anxiety and memory reconsolidation, so it could help.

CBD Oil Tinctures (Oral)

Racing Thoughts

[33] [34]

No specific research done on this, beyond research on anxiety treatment.

CBD Oil Tinctures (Oral)

CBD’s Frequently Asked Questions:

Does CBD Oil get you high? No! CBD Oil is legally only allowed to contain up to 0.3% THC by dry weight.39 At such a lower concentration, the odds of getting any kind of psychoactive “high” is very slim. However, CBD products that include THC may present issues involving THC’s general effect on the brain, and for those who wish to avoid potential issues, there are Broad Spectrum products that have all THC filtered out.

Who can CBD Oil help?
Studies on CBD Oil have been diverse in the groups they target, suggesting possible therapeutic use in children, teens, adults, and seniors. Not only this, but CBD tends to have an incredibly safe side-effect profile, making it a more preferred treatment for many people.10

Is CBD a Pain Killer?
No. A “Pain Killer” is typically defined as something containing acetaminophen, aspirin, ibuprofen, or naproxen. Despite this, CBD has been scientifically shown to reduce at least some kinds of pain.13

Is CBD Safe?
CBD is considered very safe!10 Very few side effects are present, and even use with other medications has shown to be well tolerated. With that said, you should always consult with your doctor before mixing CBD with any medication you are using.


1 Thomas, A, et al. “Cannabidiol Displays Unexpectedly High Potency as an Antagonist of CB1 and CB2 Receptor Agonists in Vitro.” British Journal of Pharmacology 150, no. 5 (2009): 613-23. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0707133.

2 Leweke, F M, et al. “Cannabidiol Enhances Anandamide Signaling and Alleviates Psychotic Symptoms of Schizophrenia.” Translational Psychiatry 2, no. 3 (2012). doi:10.1038/tp.2012.15.

3 Petrocellis, Luciano De, et al.“Effects of Cannabinoids and Cannabinoid-Enriched Cannabis extracts on TRP Channels and Endocannabinoid Metabolic Enzymes.”British Journal of Pharmacology 163, no. 7 (2011): 1479-494. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.01166.x.

4 Rey, Alejandro Aparisi, et al.“Biphasic Effects of Cannabinoids in Anxiety Responses: CB1 and GABAB Receptors in the Balance of GABAergic and Glutamatergic Neurotransmission.”Neuropsychopharmacology 37, no. 12 (2012): 2624-634. doi:10.1038/npp.2012.123.

5 Luscher, B, et al.“The GABAergic Deficit Hypothesis of Major Depressive Disorder.”Molecular Psychiatry16, no. 4 (2010): 383-406. doi:10.1038/mp.2010.120.

6 Mcpartland, John M., et al. “Care and Feeding of the Endocannabinoid System: A Systematic Review of Potential Clinical Interventions That Upregulate the Endocannabinoid System.”PLoS ONE 9, no. 3 (2014). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0089566.

7 Fuss, Johannes, et al.“A Runner’s High Depends on Cannabinoid Receptors in Mice.”Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112, no. 42 (2015): 13105-3108. doi:10.1073/pnas.1514996112.

8 Shannon, Scott.“Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series.”The Permanente Journal, 2019, doi:10.7812/tpp/18-041.

9 Perucca, Emilio.“Cannabinoids in the Treatment of Epilepsy: Hard Evidence at Last?”Journal of Epilepsy Research 7, no. 2 (2017): 61-76. doi:10.14581/jer.17012.

10 Iffland, Kerstin, and Franjo Grotenhermen. “An Update on Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol: A Review of Clinical Data and Relevant Animal Studies.”Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research 2, no. 1 (2017): 139-54. doi:10.1089/can.2016.0034.

11 Peres, Fernanda F., et al.“Cannabidiol as a Promising Strategy to Treat and Prevent Movement Disorders?”Frontiers in Pharmacology 9 (2018). doi:10.3389/fphar.2018.00482.

12 Nagarkatti, Prakash, et al.“Cannabinoids as Novel Anti-Inflammatory Drugs.”Future Medicinal Chemistry 1, no. 7 (2009): 1333-349. doi:10.4155/fmc.09.93.

13 Hammell, D.c., et al. “Transdermal Cannabidiol Reduces Inflammation and Pain-Related Behaviours in a Rat Model of Arthritis.”European Journal of Pain 20, no. 6 (2015): 936-48. doi:10.1002/ejp.818.

14 Caterina, Michael J.“TRP Channel Cannabinoid Receptors in Skin Sensation, Homeostasis, and Inflammation.”ACS Chemical Neuroscience 5, no. 11 (2014): 1107-116. doi:10.1021/cn5000919.

15 Kaplan, Barbara L.f., et al.“The Profile of Immune Modulation by Cannabidiol (CBD) Involves Deregulation of Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells (NFAT).”Biochemical Pharmacology 76, no. 6 (2008): 726-37. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2008.06.022.

16 Rieder, Sadiye Amcaoglu, et al.“Cannabinoid-Induced Apoptosis in Immune Cells as a Pathway to Immunosuppression.” Immunobiology 215, no. 8 (2010): 598-605. doi:10.1016/j.imbio.2009.04.001.

17 Zhang, Jun-Ming, and Jianxiong An.“Cytokines, Inflammation, and Pain.” International Anesthesiology Clinics 45, no. 2, 2007, pp. 27–37., doi:10.1097/aia.0b013e318034194e.

18 O'sullivan, Saoirse Elizabeth.“An Update on PPAR Activation by Cannabinoids.” British Journal of Pharmacology 173, no. 12 (2016): 1899-910. doi:10.1111/bph.13497.

19 Wang, L., et al.“Promoting Longevity by Maintaining Metabolic and Proliferative Homeostasis.” Journal of Experimental Biology 217, no. 1 (2013): 109-18. doi:10.1242/jeb.089920.

20 Lee, Sung Ryul. “Critical Role of Zinc as Either an Antioxidant or a Prooxidant in Cellular Systems.” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 2018 (2018): 1-11. doi:10.1155/2018/9156285.

21 Rimmerman, N, et al."Direct Modulation of the Outer Mitochondrial Membrane Channel, Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1 (VDAC1) by Cannabidiol: a Novel Mechanism for Cannabinoid-Induced Cell Death.” Cell Death & Disease 4, no. 12(2013). doi:10.1038/cddis.2013.471.

22 Osei-Hyiaman, Douglas, et al.“Endocannabinoid Activation at Hepatic CB1 Receptors Stimulates Fatty Acid Synthesis and Contributes to Diet-Induced Obesity.” Journal of Clinical Investigation 115, no. 5 (2005): 1298-305. doi:10.1172/jci200523057.

23 Prud'homme, Mélissa, et al.“Cannabidiol as an Intervention for Addictive Behaviors: A Systematic Review of the Evidence.” Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment 9 (2015). doi:10.4137/sart.s25081.

24 Welty, Timothy E., et al.“Cannabidiol: Promise and Pitfalls.” Epilepsy Currents 14, no. 5 (2014): 250-52. doi:10.5698/1535-7597-14.5.250.

25 Oláh, Attila, et al. “Cannabidiol Exerts Sebostatic and Antiinflammatory Effects on Human Sebocytes.” Journal of Clinical Investigation 124, no. 9 (2014): 3713-724. doi:10.1172/jci64628.

26 Śledziński, Paweł, et al.“The Current State and Future Perspectives of Cannabinoids in Cancer Biology.” Cancer Medicine 7, no. 3 (2018): 765-75. doi:10.1002/cam4.1312.

27 Barchel, Dana, et al.“Oral Cannabidiol Use in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder to Treat Related Symptoms and Co-Morbidities.” Frontiers in Pharmacology 9 (2019). doi:10.3389/fphar.2018.01521.

28 Jadoon, Khalid A., et al.“A Single Dose of Cannabidiol Reduces Blood Pressure in Healthy Volunteers in a Randomized Crossover Study.” JCI Insight 2, no. 12 (2017). doi:10.1172/jci.insight.93760.

29 Horváth, Béla, et al.“The Endocannabinoid System and Plant-Derived Cannabinoids in Diabetes and Diabetic Complications.” The American Journal of Pathology 180, no. 2 (2012): 432-42. doi:10.1016/j.ajpath.2011.11.003.

30 Paronis, Carol A., et al."Diuretic Effects of Cannabinoids."The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 344, no. 1 (2012): 8-14. doi:10.1124/jpet.112.199331.

31 Alswat, Khalida.“The Role of Endocannabinoids System in Fatty Liver Disease and Therapeutic Potentials.”Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology 19, no. 4 (2013): 144. doi:10.4103/1319-3767.114505.

32 Bitencourt, Rafael M., and Reinaldo N. Takahashi.“Cannabidiol as a Therapeutic Alternative for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: From Bench Research to Confirmation in Human Trials.”Frontiers in Neuroscience 12 (2018). doi:10.3389/fnins.2018.00502.

33 Schier, Alexandre, et al.“Antidepressant-Like and Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Cannabidiol: A Chemical Compound of Cannabis Sativa.”CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets 13, no. 6 (2014): 953-60. doi:10.2174/1871527313666140612114838.

34 Blessing, Esther M., et al.“Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders.” Neurotherapeutics 12, no. 4 (2015): 825-36. doi:10.1007/s13311-015-0387-1.

35 Habib, George, and Irit Avisar.“The Consumption of Cannabis by Fibromyalgia Patients in Israel.” Pain Research and Treatment 2018 (2018): 1-5. doi:10.1155/2018/7829427.

36 Murillo-Rodriguez, Eric, et al.“Potential Effects of Cannabidiol as a Wake-Promoting Agent.” Current Neuropharmacology 12, no. 3 (2014): 269-72. doi:10.2174/1570159x11666131204235805.

37 Ahmed, Waseem, and Katz, Seymour."Therapeutic Use of Cannabis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease." Gastroenterology & Hepatology 12, no. 11 (2016) pp. 668-679.

38 Battista, Natalia, et al.“Altered Expression of Type-1 and Type-2 Cannabinoid Receptors in Celiac Disease.” PLoS ONE 8, no. 4 (2013). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062078.

39 Hilderbrand, R L.“Hemp & Cannabidiol: What Is a Medicine?”Missouri Medicine, Journal of the Missouri State Medical Association, 2018


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